About soft computing : In computer science, soft computing (sometimes referred to as computational intelligence, though CI does not have an agreed definition) is the use of inexact solutions to computationally hard tasks such as the solution of NP-completeproblems, for which there is no known algorithm that can compute an exact solution in polynomial time. Soft computing differs from conventional (hard) computing in that, unlike hard computing, it is tolerant of imprecision, uncertainty, partial truth, and approximation. In effect the role model for soft computing is the human mind.
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More About soft computing :
Soft computing is the use of approximate calculations to provide imprecise but usable solutions to complex computational problems. The approach enables solutions for problems that may be either unsolvable or just too time-consuming to solve with current hardware. Soft computing is sometimes referred to as computational intelligence.
Soft computing provides an approach to problem-solving using means other than computers. With the human mind as a role model, soft computing is tolerant of partial truths, uncertainty, imprecision and approximation, unlike traditional computing models. The tolerance of soft computing allows researchers to approach some problems that traditional computing can’t process.
Soft Computing became a formal area of study in Computer Science in the early 1990s. Earlier computational approaches could model and precisely analyze only relatively simple systems. More complex systems arising in biology, medicine, the humanities, management sciences, and similar fields often remained intractable to conventional mathematical and analytical methods. However, it should be pointed out that complexity of systems is relative and that many conventional mathematical models have been very productive in spite of their complexity.
Soft computing deals with imprecision, uncertainty, partial truth, and approximation to achieve computability, robustness and low solution cost. As such it forms the basis of a considerable amount of machine learning techniques. Recent trends tend to involve evolutionary and swarm intelligence based algorithms and bio-inspired computation.