**About Foundation Engineering : **

In engineering, a foundation is the element of a structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground. Foundations are generally considered either shallow or deep.^{[1]} Foundation engineering is the application of soil mechanics and rock mechanics (Geotechnical engineering) in the design of foundation elements of structures.

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### More About Foundation Engineering :

A foundation is the lowest part of the building structure. It is the engineering field of study devoted to the design of those structures which support other structures, most typically buildings, bridges or transportation infrastructure. It is at the periphery of Civil, Structural and Geotechnical Engineering disciplines and has distinct focus on soil-structure interaction.

It is also called as ground sill, which transfers loads to the ground. It is generally broken into two categories.

- Shallow foundation

- Deep foundation

Foundations provide the structure’s stability from the ground.

- To distribute the weight of the structure over large area so as to avoid over-loading of the soil beneath.
- To load the sub-stratum evenly and thus prevent unequal settlement.
- To provide a level surface for building operations.
- To take the structure deep into the ground and thus increase its stability, preventing overloading.
- Specially designed foundation helps in avoiding the lateral movements of the supporting material.

The design and the construction of a well-performing foundation must possess some basic requirements that must not be ignored. They are:

- The design and the construction of the foundation is done such that it can sustain as well as transmit the dead and the imposed loads to the soil. This transfer has to be carried out without resulting in any form of settlement that can result in any form of stability issues for the structure.
- Differential settlements can be avoided by having a rigid base for the foundation. These issues are more pronounced in areas where the superimposed loads are not uniform in nature.
- Based on the soil and area it is recommended to have a deeper foundation so that it can guard any form of damage or distress. These are mainly caused due to the problem of shrinkage and swelling because of temperature changes.
- The location of the foundation chosen must be an area that is not affected or influenced by future works or factors.

Bamu Syllabus For This Subject :

SECTION-A

Unit -I: Site Investigation: need to investigate, Investigation methodologies- drilling

technologies, Pits-trenches and shafts, Geophysical and remote sensing. In-situ and lab testing,

sampling techniques, site investigation report writing. (6)

Unit -II: Analytical techniques: Failure mechanism in shallow and deep foundation, Terzaghi’s

theory and generalized bearing capacity equations, shape factors, depth factors, inclination

factors, ground slope factors and base tilt factors. Use of the equations for strip, square and

rectangular footings. Determination of the bearing capacity from filed tests by using N-values

using qc values , Plate load test, Standard Penetration test ( SPT), Factors affecting bearing

capacity, Effect of water table and eccentricity of loading on bearing capacity.

Settlement analysis: Causes and control of settlement, stress distribution, Immediate and

consolidation settlement, Differential settlement, Numerical (8)

Unit -III: Shallow foundation: Design consideration, construction of different types of footing

on sand and clay, Proportioning of footings, combined footing design and Cantilever footing.

Raft Foundation: Design consideration and construction of different types of raft on sand and

clay.

Unit -IV: Pile Foundation: Its types, use and function, timber piles, precast piles, in-situ piles.

Methods of pile driving, hammer, effect of pile driving on ground, selection of pile type.

Determination of length of pile, Pile foundation design. Determination of bearing capacity,

point bearing, friction bearing, negative skin friction, Pile capacity by static and dynamic

formulae, limitations. Group action, number and spacing of piles, under reamed piles and its

design, numerical. (8)

Unit -V: Well and Caissons: Types of wells, its component parts, choice of particular type.

Design load, scour depth, sinking and frictional resistance for well tilting, methods of correction

of wells. Caissons – open box, drilled, pneumatic. Caisson safety problems, caisson disease,

working, uses, Salient construction features

Foundations in Difficult soils: Characteristics of soil (B.C.), Foundation problems on B.C. soil,

Foundation techniques on B.C. soil, Dewatering of foundation: for tower and tank construction

(7)

Unit -VI: Cofferdams: Sheet piles, sheet pile walling, types, analysis and design of sheet pile

wall, Types of cofferdams, uses, construction of single wall, double wall and cellular cofferdam

Design of braced cofferdam, cellular cofferdam, Design of circular and diaphragm type

cofferdam, Pumping and sealing of bottom of cofferdam (5)

Recommended Books

1. Foundation Engineering, B.J. Kasmalkar

2. Gulhati, S.K. and Datta, M. (2005), Geotechnical Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill,

3. Soil Mechanics and Foundation engineering, Dr. K.R. Arora.

4. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, B.C. Punmia

Reference Books

1. Venkataramaiah, C. (2005), Geotechnical Engineering (3rd Edn), New Age International

(P) Ltd., New Delhi

2. Das, B.M. “Principles of Foundation Engineering (Fifth edition), Thomson Books

3. Teng, W. C. “Foundation design”.

Pattern of Question Paper:

The units in the syllabus shall be divided in two equal sections. Question paper shall be set

having two sections A and B. Section A questions shall be set on first three units (1,2,3) and

Section B questions on remaining three units (4,5,6). Question paper should cover the entire

syllabus.

For 80 marks Paper:

1. Minimum ten questions

2. Five questions in each section

3. Three questions from each section are asked to solve.

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